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ANGIOGENESIS STAGES

Angiogenesis - is a natural physiological process by which new blood vessels are formed from blood vessels already present in the body.
This process is not usually observed in adults, except in some episodic situations such as:

  • reproduction
  • growth of muscles
  • growth of lipid tissue
  • wound healing


I stage. The  source of an angiogenic episode can be a tumour, hypoxia, inflammation or oxidative stress.


II stage. Stimulated cells produced pro-angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which spreads into the adjacent blood vessels and initiates their spread.


III stage. Endothelial cells react to the stimulus and start to produce matrix metal proteinases, which destroy membrane collagen fibres; proliferating endothelial cells with destroyed fibres can move towards the stimulus.


IV stage. Endothelial cells form the components of an extra-cellular matrix, which merge together and form the walls of a new blood vessel.

 

ANGIOGENESIS IS REGULATED BY THE BALANCE BETWEEN PRO-ANGIOGENIC AND ANTI-ANGIOGENIC FACTORS


Usually angiogenesis is very precisely regulated maintaining a balance between the pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. However, in certain situations, for example, during wound healing, stimulators of angiogenesis start to lead and this process continues as long as it is required for the wound to heal; then again a balance between the pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors is established.
In some pathological situations balance is not restored and this leads to the continuous formation of new blood vessels.
More than 70 diseases affecting one million individuals are associated with active angiogenesis.
 



ANGIOGENESIS AND ONCOLOGY

Angiogenesis is one of the essential factors predetermining a growth, invasion and metastatic spread of a malignant tumour.
The main role in angiogenesis is played by:

  • vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

and

  • matrix metal proteinase (MMP)

 

 

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF)
Angiogenesis cannot happen without the multiplication of endothelial cells; these cells line the internal surface of a blood vessel. Endothelial cells reacts strongly to VEGH and other growth factors, which stimulate their proliferation.

Angiogenesis is stimulated by cancerous cells, which produce vascular endothelial growth factors – VEGF. The blood vessels have special antennas on their surface – VEGF receptors, which receive the VEGF signals. When the VEGF signal reaches these antennas, the branches of the blood vessels start to develop and grow towards the signal, and thus the tumour. Eventually the tumour is surrounded by a network of blood vessels. As the tumour grows, it experiences a deficiency of oxygen, leading to increased production of VEGF and thus to an increased number of blood vessels.

 

Matrix metal proteinase (MMP) – pro-angiogenic enzymes

Healthy tissue                                                                                        Angiogenic tissue

MMP are enzymes, which destroy structural proteins (extracellular matrix).

 

Inhibition of MMP:

Healthy tissue                                                                Angiogenic tissue, supplemented with LSCE

 

A tumour becomes more malignant when metastases form new tumours away from the primary tumour. To form a metastasis, the cancerous cell must penetrate the intercellular substance and turn up in the blood or lymphatic vessels. The cancerous cells can attach to the components of intercellular substance, they can produce enzymes that dissolve this substance and allow them to penetrate into the adjacent tissues. These cells, are then transferred by the blood or by lymph and can form a tumour anywhere in the body.


Metastases (from the Greek metastasis – transition, removing) – a new focus of a malignant tumour (cancer), which is formed when the tumour cells from a primary tumour occur somewhere else in the body. The cells are transferred by blood and lymph. The cells of a malignant tumour naturalise in another place, they start to multiply and form the secondary foci of a cancer. This transfer of a disease is known as metastatic disease, which aggravates the course of the disease and its treatment.

 

 

ANGIOCELL PLUS - NATURAL ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITOR


Studies have proved that LIQUID SHARK CARTILAGE EXTRACT:

  • inhibits the growth, progression and invasion into the healthy tissues of a tumour;
  • reduces the volume of a tumour and risk of metastases;
  • increases the sensitivity of a tumour to chemotherapy;
  • prolongs the survival period for patients;
  • improves the quality of life of cancer patients, slows down the rate of weight loss and reduces the need for analgesics.
     


SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES

LIQUID SHARK CARTILAGE EXTRACT INHIBITS THE GROWTH OF A TUMOUR

Subcutaneous implantation of a cerebral tumour in a mouse. Treatment with LESC was started 3 days before implantation.

 

Liquid shark cartilage extract effects on the density

of human endothelium cell in vivo

A double blind-placebo controled study (published in the Journal of Surgical Research) demonstrated that the extract significantly reduces the number of cells forming blood vessels (endothelium).

CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that the liquid cartilage extract contains an antiangiogenic component bioavailable in humans by oral administration.

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